Artifact 1: How Does the 15 to Finish Initiative Affect Academic Outcomes of Low-Income, First-Generation Students? Evidence from a College Promise Program in Indiana
This longitudinal study is a part of Roy Y. Chan's doctoral dissertation work at the Indiana University Bloomington, School of Education and the IU Office of the Vice President for Diversity, Equity, and Multicultural Affairs (OVPDEMA).
Abstract: As the cost of college tuition has increased, policymakers and practitioners have begun to examine the proliferation of college promise programs (i.e., tuition-free grant programs, debt free college programs) across the United States. These initiatives typically aim to lower or eliminate the cost of college attendance and in doing so increase college completion among underrepresented groups: predominantly low-income, first-generation, students of color. While several states and cities have announced or launched promise programs designed to improve college retention and completion, scholars of education policy and practitioners know relatively little about the implications of these initiatives, and whether certain policies or procedures are best suited to specific contexts.
The purpose of this study is to determine what effect a statewide 30-credit hour annual completion policy had on the academic outcomes of college promise program recipients at two 4-year public research universities, Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) and Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (IUPUI). The policy, which has been emulated in many states, aims to encourage students to take 15 credits per semester (or 30 credits per year) and thereby remain on course to complete a bachelor’s degree in 4 years (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2015; Lumina Foundation, 2017; SHEEO, 2008; U.S. Office of the Press Secretary, 2009). While the new legislation adopted in Indiana is an attempt by the Indiana Commission for Higher Education (ICHE) to improve college completion and on-time graduation of students, very few scholar-practitioners, aside from a few within the University of Hawaii system and Complete College America (CCA), have provided evidence that attempting to complete 30 credits per academic year significantly improves academic performance and subsequently, degree completion rates among underrepresented students. This study examines the implementation of and subsequent policy change to the early-commitment college promise program, Indiana Twenty-First Century Scholarship (TFCS) Program.
Using administrative data from the Indiana University’s University Institutional Research and Reporting (UIRR) office, representing 7,842 low-income students who enrolled shortly before and adopt the policy was implemented, this observational study employs a quasi-experimental, difference-in-differences (DiD) approach to explore the impact of the Indiana Code Title 21 (IC-21-12-6-7) (30 credit hour annual completion policy) on students’ academic outcomes. Specifically, this quantitative study examines the heterogenous treatment effects of this policy change on the academic performance (e.g., cumulative credit hours accumulated, cumulative grade point average [GPA], degree completion status) of Indiana TFCS recipients at IUB and IUPUI, compared to non-TFCS Pell recipients from the same time period (Fall 2011 through Fall 2014 cohorts). The study will be guided by the following research questions: (1) Did the 30-credit hour annual completion policy (15 to Finish) achieve its intended effects: increasing credit accumulation, improving student progress and increasing graduation rates? and (2) Are any of the identified policy effects moderated by demographic factors (race, gender, generation) and pre-college characteristics (high school GPA, SAT score)? Does the policy appear to have differential effects for various types of students?
Results suggest that the 30-credit hour annual completion policy showed a positive significant effect on credits and grades but had no effect on degree completion status at IUB (a small town, primarily residential, more selective, flagship research university). In addition, the study found a significant interaction effect for Gender and Generation Status when accounting for pre- and post-policy groups. Specifically, Gender yielded significant interaction effects on TFCS recipient academic outcomes in terms of Year 1 Cumulative Credits, Year 2 Cumulative Credits, and Year 1 Cumulative GPA, suggesting that female students at IUB appear to have significantly benefited from the 30-credit hour annual completion policy. The policy had no interaction effect on low-income, first-generation students enrolled at IUPUI (an urban, primarily nonresidential, moderately selective research university) for both the academic progress continuous variables and the college completion status binary variables. These findings demonstrate that the policy, which was related to a broader, national 15 to Finish initiative did not produce its intended effect, nor did it have any adverse consequences for low-income, first-generation students.
The results of this policy evaluation research have important implications for policymakers, politicians, university administrators, and advanced practitioners who seek to design college promise programs for completion. This research contributes to the empirical literature on state policies aimed at increasing student progression and completion. Moreover, this study extends beyond the CCA’s 15 to Finish initiative and highlight the broader effects of required academic performance policies on student success. The study will inform public debate about and adjustments of the policy and will also highlight several directions for future research.
Artifact 2: Who are the 21st Century Scholars at Indiana University Bloomington?
This powerpoint presentation was created, developed and presented by Roy Y. Chan for the "2018 First-Year Experience (FYE) Bi-Annual Conference" on April 3, 2018 at Indiana University Bloomington. This study was supported by IU Office of the Vice President for Diversity, Equity, and Multicultural Affairs (OVPDEMA) and the IU Office of the Vice Provost for Diversity and Inclusion (OVPDI).
Abstract: Each year, Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) welcomes a diverse cohort of 21st Century Scholars with a unique profile. Statistically, 1 in 5 students at IUB are 21st Century Scholars. Ever wonder who are they? As the largest academic support department in terms of student enrollment (~3,200 scholars) in the 2017-2018 academic year, this session will explore the demographic (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, generational status), geographical (e.g., rural/urban), and pre-college characteristics (e.g., SAT scores, high school GPA) of currently enrolled 21st Century Scholars at IUB, with special attention to the Class of 2021 (N = 831). To further guide this presentation, university program-level data of 7,042 incoming first-year IUB 21st Century Scholars between 2007 and 2017 will be utilized to understand and compare the changing demographic profiles of IUB 21st Century Scholars Award recipients funded by the Indiana Commission for Higher Education. As college promise programs such as the Indiana 21st Century Scholars Program are proliferating at a rapid pace across the United States, this workshop will have important implications for teachers-scholars and student affairs professionals in addressing the complex intersection of undergraduate recruitment, first-year orientation programs, and financial aid and scholarship of underrepresented groups (e.g., low-income, first-generation) at Indiana University.
Artifact 3: The Professionalization of Fundraising: A Transcript Analysis of CASE President Emeritus Peter McEachin Buchanan (1935-1991) on U.S. Higher Education Philanthropy
This independent research project was evaluated, conducted and presented by Roy Y. Chan for his EDUC-C 680 History of Higher Education and Philanthropy course taught by Dr. Andrea Walton in Fall 2017 at Indiana University Bloomington, School of Education.
Abstract: Using oral history method and narrative inquiry, this paper utilizes archival sources to examine (1) the historical, social, and political forces in higher education philanthropy that has contributed to the development of Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) and (2) the history of philanthropy and fundraising in shaping the institutionalization and professionalization process of institutional advancement. Specifically, this paper analyzed interview transcript of CASE president emeritus Peter McEachin Buchanan obtained from the American Foundations Oral History Project, 1989-1993 at Indiana University Bloomington’s Center for Documentary Research and Practice (CDRP). In addition, this study utilized university archives and newspapers from IUPUI Payton Philanthropic Studies Library and Columbia University Archives to craft and organize a detailed chronological timeline of Dr. Buchanan. Transcript data was analyzed through the NVivo 11.0 software to identify key terms related to the professionalization of higher education philanthropy in conceptualizing how fundraisers have experienced, witnessed, and enacted the advancement profession. The findings suggest that the CASE has played a significant role in the inquiry of higher education philanthropy, and more broadly, the professionalization of fundraisers during the 1970s and 1980s. This paper is significant because Samuel G. Cash’s (2003) and Andrea Walton’s (2006) earlier work provided evidence that the use of history and historical research can reveal patterns or themes relevant to higher education fundraising.
Artifact 4: Engaging Young Alumni to Higher Education Philanthropy: Millennial Generation Participation in Homecoming Events at Indiana University Bloomington
This independent research project and powerpoint presentation were created, developed and presented by Roy Y. Chan for the "NASPA 2016 Student Affairs Fundraising Bi-Annual Conference" on July 30, 2016 in Columbus, Ohio. This study was a part of EDUC-C 661 Foundations of Institutional Research course taught by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden in Spring 2016 at Indiana University Bloomington, School of Education.
Abstract: Recent research suggests that Millennial alumni giving rates have steadily declined. Furthermore, past studies claim that Millennials are far less likely than previous generations to give back to their alma mater. To address this concern, this research utilizes survey data of 628 alumni from Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) "2015 Alumni Returning to Campus Survey" in partnership between the Indiana University Alumni Association’s (IUAA) and Indiana University Foundation (IUF) to understand how often Millennial alumni return to campus for alumni activities, with special attention to Homecoming events. The finding suggests that Millennials affinity, belonging and engagement significantly influences philanthropic support to IUB. This study has important implications to understand whether philanthropic perceptions are different by age, gender, and campus designation and to what factors influence current giving or inclination to provide philanthropic support to their alma mater institution.
Artifact 5: Reimagining Higher Education as a Field of Study: An Analysis of 495 Academic Programs, Research Centers, and Institutes across 48 Countries
This powerpoint presentation was created, developed and presented by Roy Y. Chan for the "2018 World Education Research Association (WERA) Inaugural Congress" scheduled on August 4, 2018 in Cape Town, South Africa.
Abstract: The field of higher education studies has expanded dramatically in recent years. Notably, research centers/institutes and academic programs devoted to the scholarly field of higher education has increased worldwide to now include many peer-reviewed journals, books, reports, and publications. While research in the field of higher education studies has grown along with the massification of postsecondary education worldwide, scholar-practitioner who seek access to higher education scholarship between the West and the East has been extremely unequal. Furthermore, there is growing inequality around the world for people to understand the patterns of privilege and wealth when it comes to research and training in the field of higher education. Consequently, this empirical research explores the broad spectrum of policy actors and scholars engaged in the field of higher education studies across 48 countries. Utilizing data from Higher Education: A Worldwide Inventory of Research Centers, Academic Programs, and Journals and Publications, 2015 by Laura E. Rumbley, Philip G. Altbach, David Stanfield, Yukiko Shimmi, Ariane de Gayardon, and Roy Y. Chan, this paper presents an updated analysis of the existing landscape of higher education as a field of study, policy analysis, and research globally. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to review the role and value of higher education academic programs and research centers/institutes and to provide recommendations for policy and practice that will enhance their effectiveness.
Artifact 6: Higher Education and the Public Good: An Analysis of the Economic and Social Benefits for Completing a College Degree
This powerpoint presentation was created, developed and presented by Roy Y. Chan for the "Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) 2016 Annual Conference" on November 14, 2016 in Columbus, Ohio. Dr. Robert K. Toutkoushian from the University of Georgia, Institute of Higher Education served as the discussant of the session.
Abstract: Higher education worldwide is facing unprecedented challenges - the dramatic rise of for-profit institutions, rapidly increasing expectations about what services colleges and universities should provide, and a complex society that demands college graduates with even more skills and capacities. To understand how higher education can effectively address these challenges, this paper investigates the public and private purpose of higher education and what it means for higher education's future. Utilizing Critical Interpretive Synthesis (CIS) and signaling theory, this research reviews the changing meanings of 'public' and 'private' in higher education from the perspective of (1) education providers and (2) undergraduate students. A comprehensive search of the literature selected 60 peer-reviewed journal articles and twenty-five books published between 2000 and 2016. Nine synthetic constructs of the goals were found and while there was some agreement between institutions and students on the economic and social benefits of higher education, the review was characterized by a significant misalignment. The findings suggest that student expectations for a college degree tend to be very instrumental and personal, while higher education purpose of undergraduate education tends towards highly ideal life-and society-changing consequences. This paper offers eight recommendations for policymakers to consider that address the growing misalignment gap between education providers and undergraduate students. The ultimate goal is to develop renovation or repurposing strategy across competing imperatives and to outline success measures to critically define, measure, and evaluate the achievement of specific goals and outcomes in hopes of resolving potential skills mismatch in a world of massive cataclysmic change.
Artifact 7: Forum on Education Abroad: 2017 State of the Field Results
This poster was created, developed and presented by Roy Y. Chan for the "NAFSA 2018 Annual Conference" on May 29, 2018 and "Forum on Education Abroad 2018 Annual Conference" on March 22, 2018. This research was part of Roy's work in the data committee with the Forum on Education Abroad staff.
Abstract: The Forum on Education Abroad's Data Committee and Forum staff developed, implemented, and published the 2017 State of the Field (SOF) Survey to understand the current trends of education abroad in the United States and overseas by providers and institutions, and offers evidence-based information for the planning and development of future study abroad programs. The 2017 SOF builds on the knowledge base on the previous six surveys in 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015. A total of 264 providers/institutions completed the survey out of 768 member representatives (34% response rate). Roy Y. Chan contributed to the data analysis and publication of the 2017 SOF Survey report.